Toxicology is “the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms “ It deals with poisons, snake bites, scorpion stings and insect stings.
According to WHO, about 5.4 million snake bites occur each year, resulting in 1.8 to 2.7 million cases of envenomings (poisoning from snake bites). There are between 81,410 and 1,37,880 deaths and around three times as many amputations and other permanent disabilities each year.
The act of deliberate self-harm or accidental or homicidal ingestion of harmful substances that causes ill-health, injury or death into the body by different means may cause acute poisoning. Many preferred to die by poisoning for a peaceful death instead of passing by hanging or burning.
According to National Poisons Information Centre, New Delhi, analysis of poisoning calls showed that the highest incidence of poisoning was due to household agents(44.1%), followed by drugs(18.8%), agricultural pesticides (12.8%), industrial chemicals (8.9%), animal bites and stings (4.7%), plants (1.7%), unknown (2.9%) and miscellaneous (5.6%)
Effects of toxic substances (including toxins, venoms, and toxicants) can be lethal when not treated at the earliest.
The introduction of Emergency Medicine has been a game-changer for treating such cases. It has dogmatically laid down guidelines for the management of patients with poisoning, snake bites and insect bites and stings